Maqām

 

Maqām Analyses

This page is dedicated to various maqām video analyses undertaken by members of the CERMAA and associated members.

The video analyses are part of the VIAMAP (Video-Animated Music Analysis Project) and the first four were intended to accompany the article “MAT for the VIAMAP. Maqām Analysis Tools for the Video-Animated Music Analysis Project” by Amine Beyhom – NEMO-Online Vol. 4 No. 7, November 2018, p. 145-258 (see also the full post with all 41 video analyses or http://nemo-online.org/articles).

9 analyses have been published as for June 25 2020:

  •  2 versions (original and half-tempo) of the “Seven maqāmāt” by Muḥammad al-Ghazālī
  •  2 versions (original and half-tempo) Ahlan bi-Ghazālin by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd
  • One improvisation in maqām Ṣabā by Hamdi Makhlouf ʿūd (updated version)
  • “Like the Merchants” or “Akh tagorye hʾachirye” ‎(Syriac repertoire) performed by Evelyne Daoud (updated version)
  • The first 3D analysis, of a Huseynî Taksim performed by Neyzen Tevfik (a preliminary version of this analysis was published privately)
  • 2 versions (Original and Third tempos) of “Yā Nasīm a-ṣ-Ṣabā” (1927 ODEON X 55 581-1) performed by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd (Voice) & Sāmī a-sh- Shawwā (violin)
Notes for the analyses

The pitch contour is shown as a black (or blue, more recently) broken line, with the relative intensity shown as a reddish (maroonish) line. Different colors can however be used for pitch in the case of multiple instruments or voices, and also in the case of 3D analyses (two 3D analyses as for 29 April 2019). Score scales are based on the conventional quarter-tone division (half-flat and half-sharp accidentals) or, in the case of Byzantine chant, on the 72-moria division of the theory of the Second 19th-Century reform. The graphic scales (see an example below) are based on the same intervallic division and feature to the left (and in the intermediate column) the names of the degrees of the scale: these follow Amine Beyhom’s proposed solmization (available as FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor – downloadable here, and reproduced below), namely, for the main degrees of the scale of maqām Rāst: rā = RĀST = c, dū = DŪKĀ = d, sī = SĪKĀ = e, ja = JAHĀRKĀ = f, na = NAWĀ = g, ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a, aw = AWJ = band Rā = KIRDĀN = c’ (C). The tonic is relative with note names undergoing a change of the case of the initial letter with the change of octaves. Intermediate notes (ʿarabāt) are likewise given corresponding solmization syllables. The upper stripe features a division of the vertical space based on the tonic and its octave (red horizontal lines, plain for the tonic), the fourth (green dashed line) and the fifth (blue dashed line). Time indication are “s_a” for “seconds of the analysis” (the numbers shown on the graphic analysis below) while “s_v” is the number of seconds of the video. The upper and lower cases lettering differentiates (the scale of) for example maqām Rāst (initial uppercase) from the (pitch) tonic RĀST (uppercase) and the polychord (or jins) rāst (lowercase). In both literal analysis and annotations to the graphical analysis numbers between brackets are additional bordering intervals used (or not used) in performance; for example, a ḥijāz tetrachord on DŪKĀ = dū will be noted [2]262[4] if the performer uses one-interval extensions for the original tetrachord ḥijāz dū 262. The rest note of the tetrachord is always but the performer may use a lower interval of one half-tone (“2”) between c# and d, and a higher one-tone interval between na = NAWĀ = g and ḥu = ḤUSAYNĪ = a. The same ḥijāz tetrachord on DŪKĀ = dū will be noted dū 26[2] if the performer does not use the upper semi-tone the original tetrachord ḥijāz dū 262 (the [2]) in the described performance. Further details can be found in the aforementioned article.

Explanations about one typical graphic scale used in the videos
Copy of FHT 57 p. 245 in the article “MAT for the VIAMAP” by the author/editor: Extended solmization of the scale of maqām music. Columns from left to right: (1) Original (7 notes per octave) solmization proposed in 2012; (2) Names of the main notes of the scale (the burdāt of maqām RĀST); (3) Names of the intermediate notes between the burdāt (ʿarabāt); (4) Names of the intermediate notes between the ʿarabāt (tīk = raised, nīm = lowered); (5) number of the note in the scale of al-Ḥijāzī; (6) Extended solmization as proposed by the author; (7) Corresponding numbers of the notes in the “Modern” scale (Western-inspired on the base of the division of the half-tone in two equal parts). Note that RĀST equates with c while however not indicating a fixed (but a relative) pitch. Degrees tīk-KURDĪ, nīm-BŪSALĪK, tīk-ʿAJAM and nīm-NAHAFT figure on a gray background to underline the fact that the “Modern” theory of the scale does not acknowledge them: consequently, the intervals between adjacent notes in column (7) – the last to the right – differ one from another by one quarter-tone (theoretical). Lastly: the solmization of note NAHAFT was modified as to avoid creating a duplicate with the (main) note NAWĀ: KAWASHT is the equivalent of NAHAFT in the lower octave (below the RĀST). See also the tables in ‎FHT ‎‎54 of the aforementioned article for a complete review of the degrees of the two-octavial scale of maqām music

Note also that video-analyses hold two rankings: one for the dedicated page, and the second – between parenthesises – chronological (date and time of publication) for all the video-analyses published by the CERMAA.

Video-analyses

The first two analyses concern an already published YouTube video, the “7 maqāmāt” by Muḥammad al-Ghazālī originally published at https://www.youtube.comatch?v=w1OYvFfpjeE.

“7 maqāmāt” by Muḥammad al-Ghazālī

The literal analysis, by Amine Beyhom and Hamdi Makhlouf, stands:

“The performer begins by announcing maqām Rāst on its (relative) tonic RĀST (C) then (from 2 s_a to 14 s_a) develops a jins rāst[1] (C 433 in relative – and approximate – multiples of the quarter-tone) then modulates (15 s_a to 25 s_a) to maqām Sīkā-Huzām on its original tonic SĪKĀ starting with the sub-tonic d then developing a limited part of the scale E– 3426243, namely E 34[2] in which the initial trichord 34 corresponds to a sīka on  E and the [2] initiates the upper jins ḥijāz g 262 of the scale. The next step (26 s_a to 42 s_a) consists in a modulation and a transposition, namely to maqām Ṣabā (originally on DŪKĀ or D 3326244 in its octavial form) on the degree SĪKĀ, with a development of jins ṣabā 332 including occasional inceptions of jins ḥijāz 262 on the lower[2] gb or c (34 s_a). Although the performer announces a “Nahawand” between 42 s_a and 48 s_a, this announcement is also undertaken in the scale of maqām Ṣabā – equally limited to the main (lower) tetrachord – with ample vertical descending variations (reaching the ḥu or central gb) while concluding on the (transposed) tonic DŪKĀ (=D) on AWJ = B. In the following 33 seconds (49s_a to 72s_a) the performer develops maqām Kurd D 24444244 transposed on original SĪKĀ (E), the scale of which consists in a kurd pentachord D 24444 and a nahawand tetrachord g 424[4]. The following part (72 s_a to 108 s_a) consists in developments within the scale of maqām Ḥijāz (D 2624244) transposed on ʿAJAM[4] = Bb. The performance is concluded by the development of the lower part of maqām Bayāt transposed also on ʿAJAM[5]”.

[1] The upper and lower cases lettering differentiates (the scale of) maqām Rāst (initial uppercase) from the (pitch) tonic RĀST (uppercase) and the polychord (or jins) rāst (lowercase).

[2] The vertical space for the description of this performance of maqām music is divided in three parts: the central octave (or near-octave in this case), the lower octave and the upper octave.

[3] “What Is Announced Is What You Get”.

[4] In fact on AWJ = b, but it seems to the author that the intended transposition pitch was on ʿAJAM.

[5] See previous note.

1 (38): Seven Maqāmāt by Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (uploaded 10/10/2018): https://youtu.be/Uc22jh65r0M

2 (37): Seven Maqāmāt by Muḥammad al-Ghazālī – Half-tempo (uploaded 10/10/2018): https://youtu.be/6TvK2keRZe4

Ahlan bi-Ghazālin by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd

The second set of videos concerns the solo part of Ahlan bi-Ghazālin by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd. The literal analysis of the performance (below), by Rosy Azar, Hamdi Makhlouf and Amine Beyhom, stands:

The performance starts directly with jins ṣabā (till 11 s_a – audio time showed on the graph) then with an inception of jins ḥijāz on ja = f (14.5 s_a to approx. 19 s_a). It is followed by an extended development of jins ṣabā till 28 s_a with a second inception of ḥijāz then ṣabā till approx. 37 s_a. This is followed by the development of (what can be called) a jins ḥijāz-mazmūm – due to the use of somewhat “inwards” extended bordering “semi-tones” of the tetrachord – then by the inception of a jins Nahawand on ʿaj = bb (b flat) followed in descent by alternated ḥijāz on ja = f and ṣabā on dū = d (ending around 53.5 s_a). Having thus developed the (non-) octavial scale of maqām Ṣabā, Maḥmūd reminds the auditor of the importance of jins ḥijāz (by singling it out around 60 s_a) and undertakes then a long development of jins nahawand [4]424[4] – in approximate multiples of a quarter-tone – on g initiated with a leap of octave – at 64.5 s_a – between (lower) ʿAj[am] = Bb (B flat) and (upper) ʿaj[am] = bb. The next jins ʿajam is also initiated by a (nearly imperceptible) leap of octave between ʿAj = Bb and ʿaj = bb immediately followed by a downwards leap of fifth to ja = f while, between 87.5 s_a and 91 s_a, the performer uses the upper rā = c as a temporary rest note paving the way to the inception of an upper ḥijāz on the same degree reaching the (upper) Ja = F, which completes the scale of maqām Ṣabā as such. Note that the range of the whole performance appears here clearly – from (lower) ʿAj = Bb to (upper) Ja = F (one octave plus fifth). This is followed (centered on 95 s_a) by another double leap of (1) octave (still from ʿAj = Bb to ʿaj = bb) then (2 –“minor”) third (ʿaj = bb to Zi = Db) then by the complete descent of the scale till the tonic dū = d (at approx. 116.5 s_a). The next developments (120 s_a to 150 s_a) consist in subtle back and forths between jins nahawand 424 on na = g and jins ʿajam 442 on ʿaj = bb. A descending nahawand arpeggio (modulation) at 148-150 s_a, preceded by a leap of near-octave between Rā = C and ʿaj = bb and by an ample jins ʿajam with double descent in thirds between 144 s_a and 146 s_a, initiates finally the complete descent of the scale of (what could be termed) maqām Ṣabā-nahawand until the tonic dū = d, with a closing slip – for this solo performance which precedes the choir performance – on Rā = C (end at 161 s_a – compare with the closing jins ṣabā around 116 s_a).

3 (10): Ahlan bi-Ghazālin by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd (uploaded 09/10/2018): https://youtu.be/s_Nsm4mzFns

4 (11): Ahlan bi-Ghazālin by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd – Half-tempo (uploaded 09/10/2018): https://youtu.be/3pbprgsRuRA

Improvisations on ʿūd by Hamdi Makhlouf

(video updated on 19/11/12)
Video-analysis of an improvisation in maqām Ṣabā by Hamdi Makhlouf on ʿūd, recorded by Amine Beyhom on the 16th of March 2005 in Paris – France.

Original post with explanations: http://foredofico.org/CERMAA/archives/1238

This 44th video-analysis of the VIAMAP series features a graphic representation of the intensity of the sound in parallel to pitch representation

Analysis and editing: Amine Beyhom

‎“Like the Merchants” “Akh tagorye hʾachirye” ‎(Syriac repertoire) performed by Evelyne Daoud‎

6 (45): ‎“Like the Merchants” “Akh tagorye hʾachirye” ‎(Syriac repertoire) performed by Evelyne Daoud (uploaded 12/01/2019, updated V. 1.1 22/01/2019, dedicated post http://foredofico.org/CERMAA/archives/1273 ): https://youtu.be/hIwtziFrCiU

Improvisations on ney by Neyzen Tevfik

7 (46): ‎Imagine: A Scientific Fantasy – or Video-Analysis from 2D to 3D on the example of a Huseynî Taksim performed by Neyzen Tevfik (uploaded April 28, 2019, dedicated post http://foredofico.org/CERMAA/archives/1386):https://youtu.be/tCfNsxTQFoY

2 versions (Original and Third tempos) of “Yā Nasīm a-ṣ-Ṣabā” (1927 ODEON X 55 581-1) performed by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd (Voice) & Sāmī a-sh- Shawwā (violin)

8 (47): ‎Yā Nasīm a-ṣ-Ṣabā” (1927 ODEON X 55 581-1) performed by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd (Voice) & Sāmī a-sh- Shawwā (violin) (uploaded December 1, 2019, https://youtu.be/et4iT3HLxno):

Part of the VIAMAP project, this is a video analysis of the qaṣīda “Yā Nasīm a-ṣ-Ṣabā” performed by ʿAlī Maḥmūd and violinist Sāmī a-sh-Shawwā (a Third-tempo version is available at https://youtu.be/IiHP4ZoKtgE). It uses more refined techniques to remedy the problems that arise with old historical recordings – which are of the utmost importance for the understanding of the evolution of maqām music in the previous century. More details, as well as a research on the lyrics of the qaṣīda (by Shaykh Maḥmūd a-sh-Shahhāl from Tripoli – Lebanon) are available in Part II of the article: Amine Beyhom: “The Lost Art of Maqām – With four video analyses of performances by Evelyne Daoud, Neyzen Tewfik, Hamdi Makhlouf, and by ʿAlī Maḥmūd and Sāmī a-sh-Shawwā,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 5 8 |2019-11| p. 5–64. (See http://nemo-online.org/archives/1789.) This is a sequel to the article “MAT for the VIAMAP”, accessible at http://nemo-online.org/archives/1721.

9 (48): ‎Yā Nasīm a-ṣ-Ṣabā” (1927 ODEON X 55 581-1) in Third Tempo performed by sheikh ʿAlī Maḥmūd (Voice) & Sāmī a-sh- Shawwā (violin) (uploaded December 1, 2019, https://youtu.be/IiHP4ZoKtgE):

This is the third-tempo version of the above analysis.
More details, as well as a research on the lyrics of the qaṣīda (by Shaykh Maḥmūd a-sh-Shahhāl from Tripoli – Lebanon) are available in Part II of the article: Amine Beyhom: “The Lost Art of Maqām – With four video analyses of performances by Evelyne Daoud, Neyzen Tewfik, Hamdi Makhlouf, and by ʿAlī Maḥmūd and Sāmī a-sh-Shawwā,” Near Eastern Musicology Online 5 8 |2019-11| p. 5–64. (See http://nemo-online.org/archives/1789.)

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